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桁架机械手

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:cqjiadi.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)由(you)主体、驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)系统(tong)和控制系统(tong)三个基(ji)本部分(fen)组成(cheng)。按机(ji)器(qi)人结构分(fen)类为(wei)直角坐标(biao)型(xing),机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)沿(yan)二维直角坐标(biao)系移(yi)动(dong)(dong)。主体部分(fen)通常采(cai)(cai)用龙门式结构,由(you)y向横(heng)梁与导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)、z向滑(hua)(hua)枕、十字滑(hua)(hua)座、立柱、过渡(du)连(lian)接(jie)板和基(ji)座等(deng)部分(fen)组成(cheng),z向的(de)(de)直线运动(dong)(dong)皆为(wei)交流伺(si)服电(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)通过蜗(wo)轮(lun)减速(su)器(qi)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)齿(chi)轮(lun)与y向横(heng)梁、z向滑(hua)(hua)枕上固定的(de)(de)齿(chi)条(tiao)(tiao)作滚(gun)动(dong)(dong),驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)部件(jian)沿(yan)导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)快速(su)运动(dong)(dong)。移(yi)动(dong)(dong)部件(jian)为(wei)质量(liang)较轻的(de)(de)十字滑(hua)(hua)座和z向滑(hua)(hua)枕,滑(hua)(hua)枕采(cai)(cai)用由(you)铝合金拉制的(de)(de)型(xing)材。横(heng)梁采(cai)(cai)用方钢型(xing)材,在(zai)横(heng)梁上安装有导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)和齿(chi)条(tiao)(tiao),通过滚(gun)轮(lun)与导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)接(jie)触,整(zheng)个机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)都悬(xuan)挂(gua)在(zai)其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)快,加速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)大(da),加减速(su)(su)(su)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)短。当输(shu)送较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)时(shi)(shi),惯量大(da),因(yin)此,伺服(fu)(fu)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)机(ji)要(yao)有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力,支撑元件(jian)(jian)也要(yao)有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)(du)及强度(du)(du)。只有(you)这(zhei)样,才(cai)能(neng)使伺服(fu)(fu)电(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)满足桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)高响(xiang)应、高刚度(du)(du)及高精(jing)度(du)(du)要(yao)求。在(zai)(zai)选(xuan)择(ze)合适伺服(fu)(fu)电(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下,根据(ju)物(wu)料运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)离和运(yun)行节拍,计(ji)算出伺服(fu)(fu)系统的(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移和轨迹,对驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)PID参数进(jin)行动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)态调(diao)整(zheng)。桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手根据(ju)接收(shou)到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移、速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)指令,经变化、放大(da)并调(diao)整(zheng)处理后,传递给(ji)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)单元,通(tong)过(guo)光(guang)纤(xian)传感器(qi)(qi)对运(yun)行状态进(jin)行实时(shi)(shi)检测,在(zai)(zai)高速(su)(su)(su)搬运(yun)过(guo)程中(zhong),运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)在(zai)(zai)极短的(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)内到(dao)达给(ji)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du),并能(neng)在(zai)(zai)高速(su)(su)(su)行程中(zhong)瞬(shun)间(jian)准停,通(tong)过(guo)高分辩(bian)率(lv)绝(jue)对式编码器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)插补运(yun)算,控制机(ji)械(xie)误差(cha)和测量误差(cha)对运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)精(jing)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。由于被输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)不同,质量也不同,因(yin)此,桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手有(you)多(duo)种规格和系列。在(zai)(zai)选(xuan)择(ze)时(shi)(shi),根据(ju)被输(shu)送工(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)质量,加工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)节拍来选(xuan)取。但(dan)机(ji)械(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)(de)手臂,夹(jia)持(chi)方式,则(ze)根据(ju)被输(shu)送工(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及机(ji)床夹(jia)具定(ding)(ding)夹(jia)方式来设计(ji)(见(jian)图2)。

机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手能够借助(zhu)可(ke)编程序来(lai)处(chu)理和执(zhi)行(xing)任务。机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手主要(yao)由手图 1 臂、回转装置、运动部件(jian)(jian)及驱动部件(jian)(jian)组成。通过对(dui)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)外(wai)形或工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)上定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)支(zhi)撑(cheng)点(dian)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)夹持工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)。例(li)如,在汽车发(fa)动机(ji)(ji)(ji)加工(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)动线物流输送中,桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手的(de)(de)夹持模(mo)块会根(gen)据(ju)缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖、曲轴等工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)外(wai)形特点(dian),选取不同的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)和夹持方(fang)式。柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手上采用(yong)气缸(gang)和电机(ji)(ji)(ji)进行(xing)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)和夹持模(mo)块的(de)(de)切换(huan)驱动,一(yi)套机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手可(ke)完(wan)成不同品(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)搬运工(gong)(gong)作。夹持定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)块可(ke)根(gen)据(ju)产品(pin)质量和外(wai)形的(de)(de)大小采用(yong)系列化设(she)计,机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手上的(de)(de)夹持定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)块安(an)装方(fang)式相同,针对(dui)不同系列的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian),只需(xu)切换(huan)相应的(de)(de)夹持定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)块即可(ke),满足快速切换(huan)的(de)(de)需(xu)要(yao)。这(zhei)样,当加工(gong)(gong)不同品(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian),只须变换(huan)夹持模(mo)块就(jiu)可(ke)实(shi)现,提高了桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机械(xie)手输(shu)送(song)装置(zhi)的(de)发展及现(xian)状

自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了(le)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时代。就目(mu)前(qian)而言, 在国(guo)内(nei)二者(zhe)均有之。刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)为棘(ji)轮棘(ji)爪、摆杆(gan)、抬(tai)起(qi)步(bu)(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形(xing)式(shi)。随(sui)着加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,由(you)(you)其组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐(zhu)步(bu)(bu)替代组(zu)(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它以适(shi)应(ying)小批量多(duo)品种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到市场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛(fan)认(ren)可(ke),并称(cheng)其为柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种以加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就其输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)或(huo)(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)带(dai)依(yi)然为刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是(shi)(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又有了(le)飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)形(xing)式(shi)以刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou))并存,或(huo)(huo)纯(chun)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统全部(bu)由(you)(you)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成,这(zhei)是(shi)(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即(ji)(ji)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)配以桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),又称(cheng)之为敏捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)敏捷(jie)制(zhi)造系(xi)统的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要组(zu)(zu)(zu)成部(bu)分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)可(ke)根据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)随(sui)意改(gai)(gai)变(bian),自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)之间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)(zhuang)位置(zhi)不(bu)再象刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)那(nei)样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)或(huo)(huo)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要求(qiu)进行(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)(zhuang),且(qie)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也可(ke)根据(ju)生(sheng)产节拍及输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)离而改(gai)(gai)变(bian)。而真正体(ti)现(xian)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要一(yi)面是(shi)(shi),当被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产品改(gai)(gai)变(bian)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)不(bu)会不(bu)适(shi)应(ying)而全部(bu)更(geng)换,只要改(gai)(gai)变(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)程(cheng)序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)局(ju)部(bu)结构即(ji)(ji)可(ke)。采用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)更(geng)先进的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面是(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智(zhi)能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协(xie)调统一(yi)。因(yin)此,桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)才在当今(jin)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)多(duo)地被采用(yong),使整个生(sheng)产过(guo)(guo)程(cheng)通过(guo)(guo)信(xin)息(xi)流(liu)系(xi)统进行(xing)控(kong)制(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong),所需(xu)各(ge)种信(xin)息(xi)收集、处(chu)理(li)、反馈,并通过(guo)(guo)电子计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)(huo)其他控(kong)制(zhi)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(液压、气压装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)等(deng)),对(dui)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)(huo)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)设(she)备实行(xing)分(fen)级控(kong)制(zhi)。信(xin)息(xi)流(liu)系(xi)统分(fen)为由(you)(you)中(zhong)央管理(li)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流(liu)控(kong)制(zhi)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)制(zhi)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)以及信(xin)息(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)(zu)成。目(mu)前(qian),汽车制(zhi)造业中(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)缸(gang)体(ti)、缸(gang)盖(gai)及曲轴(zhou)等(deng)大批量关键零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采用(yong)了(le)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国(guo)内外的差距

当下,我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展很(hen)(hen)快,技术水(shui)平(ping)有了(le)很(hen)(hen)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)提高(gao),与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距变得越(yue)来越(yue)小(xiao),甚(shen)至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)床与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)相比已经没有什么差距。特别是国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大科(ke)技专(zhuan)项的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)开(kai)展,为我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床上(shang)档(dang)次上(shang)水(shui)平(ping)提高(gao)了(le)加(jia)(jia)速度,成(cheng)(cheng)绩显而易见。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床这几(ji)年发展的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特别快,但柔(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技术水(shui)平(ping)和档(dang)次,较国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距还很(hen)(hen)明(ming)显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)采用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)较为普遍,而国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内却为数(shu)不多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内庞大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)汽(qi)车生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)市场(chang)所采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)带(dai)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian),大多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口(kou)。如无锡柴油(you)发动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)缸体缸盖柔(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)由德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总(zong)承包,由BZ800加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)线(xian)检(jian)具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)组成(cheng)(cheng)。输(shu)(shu)送(song)采用(yong)空(kong)中(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)和机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)输(shu)(shu)送(song)。仅(jin)以汽(qi)车制造业而言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian),采用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)屈指可数(shu)。大连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床集团(tuan)和沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)床集团(tuan)等(deng)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)出(chu)了(le)该方面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian),并(bing)在(zai)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)实际中(zhong)得到(dao)了(le)应用(yong)。图4是大连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床集团(tuan)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸体加(jia)(jia)工(gong)柔(rou)性自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)两(liang)种缸体,分别为四缸和六缸,其输(shu)(shu)送(song)采用(yong)空(kong)中(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)和自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)两(liang)端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形(xing)式。桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)两(liang)个,一个上(shang)料,一个下料。它(ta)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)功,标志着我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)(chan)由桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)开(kai)始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际水(shui)准(zhun)迈进。

上述提(ti)及的(de)(de)(de)只(zhi)是(shi)(shi)数量上的(de)(de)(de)比(bi)较,其实(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)原因还(hai)(hai)是(shi)(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)技术水平(ping)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)有着一定的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)(cha)距(ju)。柔(rou)性加工(gong)自动(dong)线采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou),也是(shi)(shi)从(cong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)进(jin)口的(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)还(hai)(hai)没有专门生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)厂家。如(ru)今,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)巨(ju)一等一些桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)厂家的(de)(de)(de)涌出(chu),为国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔(rou)性加工(gong)自动(dong)线带来了(le)希(xi)望,进(jin)而(er)缩小了(le)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)在生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)方面的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)(cha)距(ju),国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)在柔(rou)性加工(gong)自动(dong)线的(de)(de)(de)应用(yong)也越(yue)来越(yue)多,从(cong)而(er)打破(po)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)市场被外(wai)(wai)国(guo)(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)(de)垄(long)断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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